2(16)/2004, p. 55

Ada Kwiatkowska
Habitat - from dystopia to utopia

    Habitat is in the state of dynamic equilibrium between man and the environment, between the inhabitants' activities and the spatial settings of their life. A permanent disturbance of this equilibrium, re­sulting from the lack of possibilities of man's adaptation to environ­mental changes or of the environment's adaptation to changes in the spatial behaviours of man, causes the devastation of the surroundings by uncontrolled human activities or the blocking of human needs by the repressive influence of the surroundings.
    According to the theory of Constantinos A. Doxiadis, the housing environment may assume different forms related to the degree of e­qualization of mutual relations between man and habitat, such as: entopia - the state of dynamic equilibrium in the environment, dystopia - the state of disturbance of the dynamic equilibrium, and utopia - the state of ideal equilibrium in the housing environment.
    Entopia is defined by distinguishing the boundary conditions of the housing environment, this means, the dystopian and utopian sta­tes, but only in a closed time interval, wherein one can meet a simi­larity of the human needs and the housing standard. The following kinds of dystopia have been distinguished: demo­graphic, geometrical-spatial, programmatic-functional, technological­-physical, aesthetical and psychological-social.
    In the history of the utopian visions, concerning the ideas of man's life and shaping of the housing environment, the following trends of utopian thinking have been defined: the ideal model of the society, the ideal model of the society and the cities, model of the civilization development of the society, model of the socio-spatial harmony, the model of good living conditions, the modernistic and mechanistic architectural model, the ideal model of architecture in the dimension of techno- and ecospheres, the ideal model of interactive architecture and the virtual architectural model.