Jan Rabiej, Aleksandra Tomkiewicz
Architecture of modernist housing estates of 1950–1990. Tysiąclecie housing estate in Katowice against the background of European examples
The modernist concept of a functional city and an equivalent model of the multi-storey and multi-family building decided about the direction of the European cities’ development in the second part of the 20th century. Actions taken after World War II realised the Athens Charter records and postulates of the International Congresses of Modern Architecture. They were an attempt to improve the spatial situation of centres affected with rapid industrialization and war damages.
The aim of the paper is to show the influences of the post-war modernism on the city space of Katowice. The city image was decisively influenced by the scale of interventions and aesthetical values of the realisations. Architects who worked in Katowice especially took care of the modern form and an individual character of new investments. Housing estates which came into being at that time entered into the main tendencies of shaping multi-family development in Poland in the second half of the 20th century. At the same time they determine an important element of the European modernism achievements. This is shown by analogies in the way of shaping whole complexes and single buildings. Results from comparative analyses of the Tysiąclecie housing estate in Katowice with selected European examples: Beaulieu – Le Rond-Point housing estate in Saint-Étienne in France and the Grindtorp complex in Täby in Sweden, confirmed these relationships.
The compositional features of the main integral elements of housing estates’ development were indicated in the research: complexes silhouette, the form of residential buildings and their relationships with the surroundings, and architectural detail, were characterised on the basis of the morphological method. Comparable analyses showed that researched features of the Tysiąclecie housing estate in Katowice have characteristic analogies to modernist housing estates built after World War II in the cities of western Europe.
Key words: architecture of housing estates, post-war modernism, socmodernism, modernism in Katowice
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