Trends in modelling of the plastic form of culture objects against the example of the competition in Busan
The article presents the trends in modelling the plastic form of large culture objects such as operas, philharmonic halls, museums, theaters and cultural centers. Their uniqueness, monumental size, sculptural structure and iconic character lead to large variety of plastic forms and originality. Nowadays, many revitalization programs in the hope of reactivation of degraded space try to replicate the miracle of the “Bilbao effect”. Really often in these kind of spaces it is common to design a space for culture. Example of this kind of object, built in the first decade of the 21st century are: the Opera in Oslo, Harpa in Reykjavík, Philharmonic Hall in Hamburg. At the beginning of the 21st century, many public facility projects were selected in competitions, which greatly improved the quality of artistic forms and architectural solutions. In the article on the Busan Opera House competition trends in contemporary design were distinguished. Object of culture as a symbol of prestige, claiming to be an icon, unlimited construction possibilities also material and technology enables architects in shaping the object’s form. This contributes to the development of the individual design techniques which in effect leads to a big variety. It becomes impossible assignment objects to a specific trend or style in architecture. Considering and analyzing all the dominant features, resources and solid relation, tectonics and matter, created a typology of competitive projects and assigned them to the composition of the following categories: a) organic heterogeneous; b) an organic homogeneous; c) the geometric, dynamic, homogeneous; d) the geometric, dynamic, heterogeneous; e) the geometric static; f) mixed. There is a strong tendency to design objects with organic shapes. Much less
popular is geometric composition, which is usually dynamic. Most of competition projects are characteristic buildings-sculptures. They are monumental, original, abstract, and in effect determine the design trends for the coming years.
Key words: spatial composition in architecture, building icon, the “Bilbao effect”, revitalization
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