|2(8)/2000, p. 75
Wanda Kononowicz, Małgorzata Ożóg
Pawlowice, "garden-city" in Wroclaw. Revaluation issues
The idea of garden-cities of E. Howard and their transformed version of "housing estates-satellites" of R. Unwin and E. May, is today reliving its renaissance, it is becoming the subject of symposiums, studies, publications and projects. The yearning for an integrated society living in garden estates of a clearly defined programme and spatial composition, is expressed in this manner. This is confirmed by the diploma project called: "The garden-city of Pawlowice - its revalorization", carried out by Małgorzata Ożóg, a student of the Department of Architecture at the Wrocław University of Technology, under the direction of Professor Wanda Kononowicz, at the Institute of the History of Architecture, Arts and Technology. The project was awarded a distinction in the Professor Jan Zachwatowicz competition, for the best work in the field of monuments' preservation, organized in 1999 by the Polish National Committee of ICOMOS.
Pawlowice (in German Pawelwitz, from 1937 to 1945 - Wendelborn), of about 2000 inhabitants, lies in the north-eastern part of Wrocław in the district of Psie Pole. It was merged with Wrocław in 1970. The building society of Gartenstadt Pawelwitz Siedlungsgesellschaft m.b.H.wg built a garden-city here, before the war, on the terrain of the former property of the Korn family, according to the plan created in 1927 by the BOA architect Friedrich Wilhelm Reinsch.
The revalorization project of the garden-city contains the following parts: 1. study-historical, 2. analitical, formulated chronologically, functionally, the technical state and esthetic valuation, terminated by conservation directions, 3. project, with a concept plan of spatial development and architectural project of a Peoples' House and a repeatable one-family house.
A new plan has been proposed of arranging Pawlowice for 5000 inhabitants, with low buildings of low intensity (of about 45 inhibitants/ha), maintained in a picturesque convention. The new buildings have been developed in the north direction, forming a structure of elementary complexes of the so-called super-blocks in the Rudbum system, with cul-de-sac streets. In order to obtain obtaini a stylistic homogeneity, typical one- two- or four-family houses have been proposed, in several variants, of an average habitable surface of 85-120 m2. The architectonic form corresponds to the existing modernistic houses from the years 1927 -1930. A complex system of pedestrian communication has been created, with promenades, footpaths and green belts. The new system absorbs the existing monumental elements such as: the relics of a mediaeval stronghold, buildings of an old village, a 19th century mansion with a park and farm buildings (at present the property of the Academy of Agriculture), and the garden-city of 1927.
For the northern and southern parts there have been demarcated separate areas with a set of buildings of public services. In the area of the more prestigious southern square rises a multifunctional Peoples' House. A natural watering resort has been arranged by the lake as well as a complex of swimming-pools. In accordance with the principle of shaping the garden-city the estate is surrounded by a green isolation belt of a minimal width of 150 m., penetrating the interior of the estate. The communication system is adapted to the course of the motor-way planned in the vicinity. A correction of the "motor-way link" running too near the estate, planned by the City, has be en proposed.
At present, Pawlowice has once more become a fashionable estate. It is necessary to make certain that in the process of development Pawlowice does not Jose the atmosphere of individuality and the features of a garden-city. The project presented and the guiding rules for conservation, will be of assistance in this regard.